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Animal-Hormones Homework Help

The word hormone means “I stimulate”. Hormones are the chemical messengers which are secreted by glands which carries messages to the target cell in the body to get response. Animal glands can be classified into Endocrine glands and Exocrine glands. Exocrine glands are the ductal glands which secret their product through duct which leads to the target site. Exocrine glands produce serous (protein), mucous (mucus) or mixed products. Exocrine glands can be classified based on the way of secreting their product:

  1. Apocrine gland- In this, a part of plasma membrane containing the product buds off to release it. Example – Sweat gland in skin, Moll’s gland in eyelids.
  2. Holocrine gland – Cell disrupts to secret the product. Examples – Sebaceous glands in skin and nose.
  3. Merocrine gland- Cell secretes its product by the process of exocytosis. Example- Pancreatic acinar cells in pancreas located below the stomach.

Endocrine system helps in coordinating activities of animal body. The hormones from endocrine glands act as messengers between the nervous system and all other the organs of body. Endocrine glands release hormones directly into the bloodstream through which it is transported to the target site. Endocrine glands are ductless glands which secrete hormones in very small quantity, specific for the target cell or tissue. Examples of Endocrine glands with their locations:

  1. Pineal gland- It is present in forebrain it produces the serotonin that affects wake/sleep patterns.
  2. Hypothalamus gland – It is Iocated in forebrain it regulates the secretion of hormones from pituitary gland.
  3. Pituitary gland – It is located in the Forebrain, produces many hormones like growth hormone.
  4. Thyroid gland- It is present at the wind pipe. It regulates carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism of the body.
  5. Adrenal gland- It is present above kidney. It secretes emergency hormone of Fight.
  6. Pancreas gland- It is located below the stomach, secrets insulin to regulate sugar level in blood.
  7. Testis Male gland- It is located at sex organ produces male sex hormone called testosterone.
  8. Ovary Female gland- It is located at sex organ produces two hormones: estrogen and progesterone.

Animal hormones further include:

Hormones as signals in the body, Interactions of hormones with receptors at target cell, Physiology and functions of hormones, Effects of hormones, Cell signaling, chemical classes of hormone, Phytohormones

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