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Darwin's Theory Help

Darwin's Theory of evolution by natural selection states that there exist variations among individuals of a species. Darwin also stated that deficiency of resources in the growing population lead to competition between individuals of same species because all have to struggle for the same limited resources. This is called as struggle for existence. This competition leads to death of some individuals while others would survive. Darwin concluded that individuals with advantageous variations are more likely to survive and reproduce than individuals without theses advantageous variations. This is known as survival of fittest .Darwin describes the process of natural selection by which organisms with advantageous and favourable variations survive and reproduce at higher rate that without these variations. These inherited variations which increase the chance of an individual to survive and reproduce in a particular environment are called as adaptations. Darwin states that evolution occurs through natural selection of adapted individuals.

Logical arguments for natural selection:

  1. If all individuals born would again reproduce successfully then the population size of all species would increase exponentially.
  2. Populations normally display stability except for minor annual and occasional major fluctuations.
  3. Natural resources are limited and in stable environment they remain constant.
  4. No two individuals are exactly the same. 5. Variations are heritable

According to him evolutionary changes come through abundant production of genetic changes or variations in every generation. The relative individuals who survive are selected by nature due to advantageous combination of inheritable characters. Those who survived will reproduce and give rise to next generation. So the next generation would be lacking in characters which were present in individuals which died. Now next generation would have changed genetic constitution / Allele frequency which comes from only survived ones. This Shows - evolution has occurred

This topic further includes:

Darwin’s finches
New species
Geographical barriers

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